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中等职业学校学生英语作文中BE动词的误用现象调查

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Chapter I  Introduction

  Writing  which  occupies  an  undetectable  role  in  English  learning  process  is  a comprehensive embodiment of students’ cognitive ability, thinking ability and English comprehensive  ability.  With  the  acceleration  of  Chinese  globalization,  present  social development  has  set  higher  demands  for  the  secondary  vocational  school  students’ writing  ability,  such  as  job  application,  English  letter,  production  information,  etc. However,  a  great  majority  of  the  secondary  vocational  school  students  are  fearful  of English  writing  and  they  also  commit  many  kinds  of  errors.  Among  the  errors  that appear  in  students’  writings,  misuses  of  BE  show  a  high  frequency.  Because  of  this, various scholars and English teachers have devoted their attention to the research on BE errors. This study by employing the theories of Error Analysis, Language Transfer and Interlanguage aims at analyzing the misuses of BE by the secondary vocational school students. It argues that negative transfer of mother tongue is the most responsible factor of the misuses of BE in the secondary vocational school students’ English compositions. In  this  study,  great  efforts  will  also  be  made  to  seek  solutions  for  the  misuses  of  BE, especially in the secondary vocational school.     1.1 The Difficulty of Mastering the Usage of BE   It is well known that BE is one of the most important and commonly used verbs in  English  grammar.  It  has  complex  forms  and  various  functions  in  English,  which produces great difficulties for English acquisition. From the perspective of morphology, BE is so special in English that it has eight different forms, and which form to choose should depend on different tense and person. From the perspective of function, BE can be  used  as  an  auxiliary  verb  in  addition  to  a  main  verb.  Consequently,  it  takes  the learner rather long time to fully master the usages of BE.  We  must  attach  importance  to  different  usages  of  BE.Both  cognitive  linguistic  and  psycholinguistic  language  acquisition  theories assume  that  all  linguistic  units  are  abstracted  from  language,  which  is  put  forward  by Bybee  from  a  usage-based  perspective.  He  holds  that  “all  forms  are  generated  in  an associative  network  in  human  brain.  Lexical  storage  is  determined  solely  by  the frequency  of  use”  (425).  The  more  often  a  word  is  encountered,  the  better  it  will  be remembered. Besides, the case for “more frequent = more important to learn” is simply put: “The reasoning behind this position is that learners should be taught what is most frequent  in  language,  since  it  is  what  is  of  most  use  to  them”  (Gilquin  58).   ..........   1.2 The English Level of the Secondary Vocational School Students  Since  reforming  and  opening,  the  secondary  vocational  schools  are  set  up everywhere  with  the  recognition  and  support  of  the  government.  Due  to  the  intense competition between the secondary vocational schools to attract students, there is a very low  enrollment  threshold  today.  The  result  is  the  students’  level  varies  considerably. One  survey  reveals  that  not  only  are  the  literacy  standards  of  the  new  secondary vocational  school  students  lower  but  also  they  differ  greatly.  About  72.24%  students’ English proficiency didn’t reach up to the level they ought to(蒋乃平  43).   The  writer  has  investigated  the  100  secondary  vocational  school  students  who participate  in  the  present  study.  The  results  show  that  the  students  who  start  to  learn English from kindergarten, primary school, junior high school and secondary vocational school make up 9.00%,  78.00%,  11.00% and 2.00% of the total. It follows that the students have enough exposure to English, but have no chance to enter the institutions of higher learning because of poor results of the English examination. Understandably, the characteristics of these students are as follows: a low level of understanding, poor study habits and weak learning motivation.  .........   Chapter II   Literature Review     Scientific  study  should  be  guided  by  theories  and  the  present  research  is  no exception. According to the research needs, three theories — Error Analysis, Language Transfer  and  Interlanguage  —  will  be  applied  to  it.  The  writer  will  review  the  basic knowledge of these theories in this chapter and also present the views of the previous researches on corpus and BE based on corpus.      2.1 Review of Related Theories A  theoretical  basis  of  the  present  study,  which  gives  a  general  review  on  the theories of Error Analysis, Language Transfer and Interlanguage will be provided in this part. It is important for both teachers and learners to accept the fact that errors are an inevitable  part  of  the  learning  process.  It  is  through  learners’  errors  that  “we  can  see what  they  are  struggling  to  master,  what  concepts  they  have  misunderstood  and  what extra work they might need” (Lavery 26).  In  1957,  the  study  of  error  was  accompanied  by  the  publication  of  Lado’s revolutionary  book  Linguistics  Across  Cultures.  During  the  1960s,  there  was  a widespread enthusiasm for Contrastive Analysis  (CA  as  a  short  form).  The  reason  CA was recognized was because it could predict the difficulties language learners may come across and provided lots of practice in teaching in order to minimize all the errors which were  caused  by  interference  of  L1.  It  was  in  the  1970s  that  CA  reached  its  summit. However, some empirical evidence which was collected later questioned its reliability. Some  errors  predicted  by  CA  were  not  observed  yet,  while  other  unexpected  ones occurred  in  the  classroom.  Researchers  and  teachers  also  found  that  they  could  not impute all the errors made by L2 learners to mother tongue interference.  .........   2.2 Review of Related Studies   As  early  as  1998,  Maria  Tymoczko  predicted  that  “like  large  databases  in  the sciences,  corpora  will  become  a  legacy  of  the  present  to  the  future,  enabling  future research  to  build  upon  that  of  the  present”  (652).  As  expected,  the  English  teaching research based on corpus is on the rise in recent years. A new study of language has grown up in the later 20th century, which is called as corpus  linguistics.  Unlike  armchair  linguistics,  this  method  regards  a  lot  of  authentic language materials as the research object and represents a digestive approach to deriving a set of abstract rules by which a natural language is governed or else relates to another language.  The  advent  of  corpus  linguistics  has  great  impact  on  language  research.  It is probably no exaggeration to say that  corpus  and  the  study  of  it  have  started  a revolutionary  transformation  to  lang{代写论文就找detork.com好论文网}uage  research  and  its  applications  in  the  past  few decades. The significance of corpus is gradually obvious since the 1990s. The study of it has  leaped  forward  and  taken  on  the prosperous look. So  far  corpus  approach  has expanded to many fields such as language teaching, discourse analysis, translation study, lexicography and natural language processing.  .........   Chapter III   Methodology ..... 23  3.1 Research Questions ....... 23  3.2 Research Design  ....23 3.3 Procedures of Error Analysis .... 24  Chapter IV   Analysis of BE Errors . ..... 27  4.1 Analysis of Agreement Errors  ...... 28  4.2 Analysis of Tense Errors  ....30 4.3 Analysis of Voice Errors  ....33  4.4 Analysis of Redundancy Errors  34  4.5 Discussion ....36  Chapter V   Conclusion .......... 39  5.1 Major Findings .... 39  5.2 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research ..... 42    Chapter IV   Analysis of BE Errors     Since  all  the  BE  errors  committed  by  the  secondary  vocational  school  students have been collected and identified, the next step is to analyze the errors and find out the reasons  which  cause  these  errors.  In  this  chapter,  the  analysis  of  the  data  will  be introduced in detail. Meanwhile, the writer tries to search for the sources of those BE errors by applying Interlanguage theory and Language Transfer theory. Here is the table showing  all  the  BE  errors  found  in  the  secondary  vocational  school  students’ compositions in agreement, tense, voice and redundancy. Among  these  categories  of  errors,  agreement  error  has  the  largest  number  of frequency. There are 53 agreement errors in all, making up 41.73% of the whole. The second frequently occurred error is tense error. There are 40 in all, taking 31.50%. The least frequently occurred error is voice error, which taking 5.51% and there are 7 voice errors in all. The detailed distribution of these errors will be presented in next parts. The writer will also get to the bottom of these BE errors.    .........   Conclusion     Richards once pointed out that the error should not be only treated as an example of the learners’ failure in the process of language learning, but also be considered as a display  of  their  success  (Error  Analysis  85).  Errors  can  provide  the  teachers  with  not only what the students already know about the target language, but also the evidences of language  acquisition  to  them.  The  present  research  is  a  corpus-based  error  analysis study  on  the  misuses  of  BE  in  the  secondary  vocational  school  students’English compositions.  EA  has  important  meaning  to  reveal  how  language  competence  is acquired.  Meanwhile  it  has  inspirational  function  for  language  teaching. In  this  final chapter, the answers to the research questions put forward in chapter three are offered. The writer will provide the limitations and suggest some areas for further study as well.  ......... 参考文献(略)(责任编辑:gufeng)本文来自好论文网(detork.com),未经允许,不得转载。
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