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英语感叹词的认知理据分析

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Chapter 1 Introduction

  With the gradual development of cognitive science, cognitive linguistics has broughta new fresh air into the researches of the traditional linguistics. Cognitive linguisticsfocuses on the mutual relationship between language and thought, which believes thatlanguage is a way of thought or a pattern of the manifestation of what people think. As oneof the major topics of cognitive linguistics, cognitive motivation has been paid muchattention in recent years. Different from the view of the arbitrary nature of language, itemphasizes that the production of certain language has its original underlying cognitivemotivations, which means that there actually exist various reasons for the appearance ofsome linguistic forms.The researches of cognitive motivation in linguistics come down to every level oflinguistic forms, such as the phonetic level, the semantic level, the syntactic level or eventhe textual level. In recent years, the direction of researches has mainly pointed into thelevel of syntax and focused on exploring the underlying cognitive motivation of theproduction of grammatical structures. Although there are some studies about the cognitivemotivation on the lexical level, they are only fastened to explain the internal motivation ofthe formation of compounds. In other words, few researches are related to explore thecognitive motivation of the word-formation in its common sense. Interjections, as a wordclass, have long been ignored for its relatively small quantity. If any, the researches of thecognitive motivation of interjections are almost on the basis of its onomatopoeic nature,which means that the formation of interjections is totally due to the imitation of naturalsounds. Thus, in addition of the direct imitation of natural sounds, the author has decidedto explore more other various explanations or what is called “the cognitive motivation” ofthe formation of English interjections. The thesis has both the theoretical and the realistic significance. On one hand, it hasbeen mentioned above that the cognitive motivation of English interjections is mainlyexplained from the perspective of the imitation of natural sounds. However, in fact, someother cognitive motivations can also contribute to the formation of English interjections.Through the researches of the cognitive motivation of English interjections, the thesiswill lead us to explore various explanations of its word- formation and to enrich thetheories of the motivation of the word-formation in the field of cognitive linguistics. It hasbeen emphasized by the author that the basis of cognitive linguistics is that language is akind of thinking pattern which is shaped by thoughts. Thus, the research of the thesis willfuthur contribute to people’s understanding of the relation among language, culture andthought. On the other hand, the research of the thesis will contribute to the process of thesecond language learning by revealing the underlying motivational process of theword-formation and to arouse second language learners’ inner interests in taking use ofvarious learning strategies in the process of understanding and finally rememberingvocabularies that are usually difficult to recall. In addition, it has been mentioned abovethat the thesis will also give a basic analysis on various creative expressions of Englishinterjections in the style of comics on the basis of the multimodal metaphor. The creationof arts should firmly conform to the rule that the final product must be a kind ofunderstandable expressions. Therefore, what is studied in this thesis will edify composers,such as cartoonists, to create more novel understandable expressions in their works, andwill benefit translators in successfully translating these original works into differentlanguage editions in order to clearly and accurately express writers’ intended meanings toreaders. ..........   Chapter 2 Literature Review   The author has given a brief introduction about the topic of this thesis. In this chapter,several aspects will be explained. The author will offer a detailed introduction about theconcept of motivation which will be related to its appearance and development as well asabout the definition and the classification of interjections. Besides, some currentresearches about the cognitive motivation of English interjections will be concluded anddiscussed by the author.   2.1 Debate between arbitrariness and motivation Since the ancient Greek, form and meaning are regarded as two indivisiblecomponents of human language. From the beginning of 20th Century, the terms of“signifier” and “signified” mentioned by De Saussure have greatly influenced thedevelopment of the modern linguistics. However, some linguists argued that Saussure’s“signifier” only referred to the sound form of certain language. It is known that the soundform can not be equal to the linguistic form (Wang, 2007: 506). Thus, the author prefers touse the words “form” and “meaning” as two basic components of human language.Clearly, both form and meaning constitute certain language. However, whether therelationship between form and meaning is arbitrary or not has long been controversial inthe academia. Evolving around the issue, there generally existed two viewpoints:“Naturalism” and “Conventionalism” (namely “Realism” and “Nominalism”) (Zhao, 2011:22). Scholars, such as Herakleitos, Socrates and Plato, held on the former point of view.They deemed that there existed a certain contact between form and meaning and certainmeanings could only be showed by certain forms. Scholars, such as Parmenides,Hermogenes and Aristoteles, stuck to the latter point of view. They thought that therelation between form and meaning was totally factitious and conventional (Li, 2004: 214).In ancient China, Historical Semantics is a subject of researching language, whichemphasizes on exploring the contact between form and meaning. Thus, since then, thestudy of language motivation has been the core of researching Chinese traditional texts. ........   2.2 Definition of lexical motivation The expression of “Motivation” is mostly understood as a term of psychology. Thelinguistic notion of motivation is a little different from its psychological explanation.Motivation can be explained in both its general and narrow sense. Generally speaking,motivation refers to the basis of any linguistic phenomena’s emergence, development anddeath. The narrow sense of motivation focuses on the reasonable connection between theform and the meaning of words (Li, 2013: 60). With the development of the modernlinguistics, when the term of motivation comes into the lexical level, both foreign anddomestic scholars gave their self explanations of lexical motivation from differentperspectives.It is Ullmann who put forward the term “motivation” for the first time. Ullmanndivided vocabularies into two types: both opaque and transparent. It was thought thattransparent vocabularies, to a certain extent, indicated a logical relation between the wordand the word-formation. Thus, transparent vocabularies became the first definition of thelexical motivation (Ullmann 1962, cited in Wang 2012:147). ..........   Chapter 3 Theoretical Bases and the Research Design......15 3.1 Theoretical bases of the research............15 3.2 Research questions............. 21 3.3 Research subject .....22 3.4 Research methodologies.....23 Chapter 4 Concrete Analyses on the Cognitive Motivation..... 25 4.1 Primary English interjections.......25 4.1.1 Tamed or conventional primary interjections.............26 4.1.2 Wild or non-conventional primary interjections.........43 4.2 Secondary interjections...... 47 4.2.1 Form-Form relations...........48 4.2.2 Content-Content relations ...........50 4.2.3 Form/Content-Form/Content relations.............55 Chapter 5 Conclusion..........59 5.1 Major findings.......... 60 5.2 Implications of the thesis....61 5.3 Limitations and suggestions for the further study......62   Chapter 4 Concrete Analyses on the CognitiveMotivation of the Selected English Interjections   The research subject and the relevant theoretical bases have been discussed by theauthor. It has been concluded in the second chapter that English interjections can befurthur divided into two types: primary interjections and secondary interjections. Besides,primary interjections can be furthur sub-divided into both tamed or conventional and wildor non-conventional primary interjections. The author has divided the selected Englishinterjections into three types mentioned above. And the concrete analyses on the cognitivemotivation of the selected English interjections of the comics Peanuts on the basis of boththe theory of the linguistic motivational process mentioned by Radden and Panther and thetheory of the multimodal metaphor proposed by Charles Forceville will be given by theauthor in this chapter.   .........   Conclusion   Interjections, as a small aspect of English, have been long ignored by scholars. It iswidely accepted that the formation of English interjections is based on its nature ofimitation. However, in the author’s opinions, the potential motivation for the formation ofEnglish interjections is far more than that. In the thesis, the author regards the Englishinterjections in the comics Peanuts as the breakthrough point. On the basis of the selectedinstances of English interjections, the author attempts to explore various cognitivemotivations behind the process of manifesting English interjections. In the research fieldof the cognitive motivation, Radden and Panther once mentioned five semiotic relationsand several relevant language-independent factors which are existing in a motivationalprocess. The five semiotic relations focus on the connection between the linguistic formand the linguistic content which can be also concluded as the link between form andmeaning. The language-independent factors, such as experiential motivation, cognitivemotivation or cultural and social-psychological factors, play a significant role in themotivational process of the transformation between the linguistic form and the linguisticcontent. In addition, as a special form of artistic expression, the comics emphasize on boththe written form and the visual pictorial form of its expressions. Not only the selectedinstances themselves but also the various novel means of expression appearing in thecomics should be taken into consideration. Thus, the theory about the Multimodalmetaphor proposed by Scholar Charles Forceville has been used to give a morecomprehensive explanation of manifesting patterns of certain English interjections. Themultimodal metaphor is closely related to some cognitive mechanisms, such as theconceptual metaphor or metonymy, which are largely based on humans’ common lifeexperience. In the analysis of the thesis, two types of pictorial metaphors: indexical signsand picto{代写论文就找detork.com好论文网}rial runes mentioned by Scholars Kenndy and Forceville are used in explainingthe manifesting process of these selected instances. ......... The reference (omitted)(责任编辑:gufeng)本文来自好论文网(detork.com),未经允许,不得转载。
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